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Translation ways

漢英句子翻譯技能匯總講授

Title: 漢英翻譯技能:歸并(Combination)


Category: 本科三年級以上
Key words: combination, simple sentence, compound sentence, C-E translation
Abstract: It discusses the technique of combination of simple and compound
sentences.
Compiler: 丁立德等

C-E
(A) in terms of simple sentences
 

(1) 氣候嚴寒,河水都結冰了。It was so cold that the river froze. (丁立德,"英漢漢英翻譯講授綜合指點",大學出書社,1996)
 

(2) 現實必須緊密密切接洽現實,這是咱們該當服膺的一條準繩。That theory must go hand in hand with practice is a principle we should always keep in mind. (丁立德,"英漢漢英翻譯講授綜合指點",大學出書社,1996)
 

(3) 他在戰役中表現凸起,遭到連長的褒揚。He was commended by the company commander for his distinguished performance in the battle. (丁立德,"英漢漢英翻譯講授綜合指點",大學出書社,1996)
 

(4) 年滿十八歲的國民,都有推舉權和被推舉權。All citizens who have reached the age of eighteen have the right to vote and to stand for election. (丁立德,"英漢漢英翻譯講授綜合指點",大學出書社,1996)
 

(5) 那時,友情商鋪只對外賓開放,毛病中賓開放。At the time the friendship store was exclusively open to foreign visitors.(王大偉,"古代漢英翻譯技能",天下圖書出書公司,1999) (本科四年級以上)
 

(B) in terms of compound sentences
 

(6) 她對本身所取得的成績布滿了高傲,這也不是不事理的。She is justifiably proud of her achievements. ("古代漢英翻譯技能" 王大偉 天下圖書出書公司 1999)
 

(7) 這家小工場顛末手藝革新,成長很快,令人感應驚奇不已。This small factory underwent a technological renovation, thus developing with surprising speed. (王大偉,"古代漢英翻譯技能",天下圖書出書公司,1999) (本科四年級以上)
 

(8) 只需看一眼這封信,你就會大白你受騙了。A glance at this letter will convince you that you have been taken in. (朱巧蓮,"漢譯英之合譯法","上海科技翻譯",2001, No. 1)
 

(9) 看門人驚呆了,喘著粗氣,搖搖擺晃地走下樓梯。The janitor staggered down the stairway, stunned and gasping. (朱巧蓮,"漢譯英之合譯法","上海科技翻譯",2001, No. 1)
 

(10) 仍是熱,內心可鎮靜多了。冷風,即便是一點點,給了人們良多但愿。(老舍"駱駝祥子")It was still hot but everyone felt much better, for the breeze, though slight, brought them hope.(馮慶華編著,"英漢互譯適用翻譯教程",上海內語教導出書社,2000) (本科四年級以上)
 

 

 

 

Title: 漢英翻譯技能:彌補(Compensation)
Category: 本科三年級以上
Key words: compensation, culture, context, background information, C-E translation
Abstract: It discusses the technique of compensation from the perspectives of culture,
context and background information.
Compiler: 《新時期漢英大辭書》等
 

C-E.
1. 九州 Jiuzhou -- a poetic name for China
-北京本國語大學英語系《漢英辭書》組編,《漢英辭書》,外語講授與研討出書社。

2. 八股文 Eighth-part essay prescribed for the imperial civil service examinations-- known for its rigidity of form and poverty of ideas
-吳景榮,程鎮球主編,《新時期漢英大辭書》,商務印書館。

3. 狗咬呂洞賓,不識大好人心 Like the dog that bit Lu Tungpin--you bite the hand that feeds you.
-吳景榮,程鎮球主編,《新時期漢英大辭書》,商務印書館。

4. 貓哭老鼠--假慈善 The cat weeping over the dead mouse--shed crocodile tears.
-吳景榮,程鎮球主編,《新時期漢英大辭書》,商務印書館。

5. 蘇軾: Su Shi (formerly translated as Su Shih, 1037-1101),alias Su Dongpo, writer and calligrapher of the Song Dynasty.
-吳景榮,程鎮球主編,《新時期漢英大辭書》,商務印書館。

6. 秀才 Xiucai, one who passed the imperial examination at the county level in the Ming and Qing Dynasties
-吳景榮,程鎮球主編,《新時期漢英大辭書》,商務印書館。

7. 牛郎織女 the Cowherd and the Girl Weaver-two figures in ancient Chinese fairy tale (Later it also refers to husband and wife who live far apart.)
-吳景榮,程鎮球主編,《新時期漢英大辭書》,商務印書館。

8. 藍田人 Lantian Man, ape-man of about 600,000 years ago whose fossil remains were found in Lantian, Shanxi Province in 1964
-吳景榮,程鎮球主編,《新時期漢英大辭書》,商務印書館。

9. 開綠燈 turn on the green light (provide conveniences for certain affairs, so that they could proceed smoothly)
-張震久,袁憲軍編,《漢英中國專著名稱和術語扼要辭書》,北京大學出書社。

10. 梅旱季節 plum rain season (about 1-month rainy season usu. beginning in early summer when plum fruit becomes ripe in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River) or moldy season, a rainy season when everything goes moldy easily in the said area. (陳剛)

 

 

Title: 漢英翻譯技能:分譯(division)
Category: 本科三年級以上
Key words: division, sentence, C-E translation
Abstract: It discusses the technique of division from the perspective of various kinds of
sentences.
 


C-E.
(1) 未幾,她提著籃子返來了。Very soon she came back, holding a basket in her hand. (劉慎軍、李洪民、楊斌、劉寶編著,"按實例學英語翻譯",北京產業大學出書社, 2001)
 

(2) 他拉過一把椅子放在主人面前。He drew up a chair and placed it behind the visitor. (劉慎軍、李洪民、楊斌、劉寶編著,"按實例學英語翻譯",北京產業大學出書社, 2001)
 

(3) 周萍一小我從飯廳走下去,望望花圃,冷僻清的,不一人。Zhou Ping appears from the dining room. He is alone. He peers out at the garden. It is silent and deserted.(宋天錫、袁江、袁冬娥編著,李鵬飛審校,"翻譯新觀點英漢互譯適用教程",國際產業出書社)
 

(4) 他哼著曲子從山上走上去。 He walked down the hill, singing softly to himself.(劉慎軍、李洪民、楊斌、劉寶編著,"按實例學英語翻?quot;,北京產業大學出書社, 2001)
 

(5) 國民的憬悟是不輕易的,要去掉國民腦筋中的毛病思惟,須要咱們做良多萬萬實實的任務。The political awakening of the people is not easy. It requires much earnest effort on our part to rid their minds of wrong ideas. ("英漢翻譯手冊")
 

(6) 咱們的目標必然要到達,咱們的目標必然可以或許到達。Our goal must be attained. Our goal will be attained.(單其昌著,楊憲益校,"漢英翻譯技能",外語講授與研討出書社,1999)
 

(7) 咱們的反動已取得全天下泛博國民的憐憫和喝彩,咱們的伴侶遍于全天下。Our revolution has won the sympathy and acclaim of the people of all countries. We have friends all over the world. (單其昌著,楊憲益校,"漢英翻譯技能",外語講授與研討出書社,1999)
 

(8) 咱們規復和采用這些商業體例的緣由很簡略:咱們出口商品便是為了咱們外洋客戶花費方面的須要。The reason why we have restored and adopted these trade practices is very simple. Our export commodities are for the use and consumption of our foreign customers. (單其昌著,楊憲益校,"漢英翻譯技能",外語講授與研討出書社,1999)
 

(9) 此次大會充實發揮了民主,大師表情愉快,活躍活躍;真正開成了一個連合的大會,成功的大會。The conference has given full expression to democracy; the atmosphere has been lively and the delegates have enjoyed ease of mind. Ours has indeed been a congress of unity, a congress of victory.(鐘述孔著 《英漢翻譯手冊》 商務印書館 1980)
 

(10) 這些國度的共產黨和進步黨派,正促使它們的當局和咱們做買賣,乃至成立交際干系,這是好心的,這便是支援。 The Communist Parties and progressive groups in these countries are urging their governments to established trade and even diplomatic relations with us. This is goodwill, this is help.(鐘述孔著 《英漢翻譯手冊》 商務印書館 1980)

 

 

Title: 漢英翻譯技能:形合 (Hypotaxis)
Category: 本科三年級以上
Key words: hypotaxis, sentence structure, syntactic, C-E translation
Abstract: It discusses the technique of hypotaxis from the perspective of syntactic subordination or
sentence structure.
Compiler: 楊莉藜、馮志杰等
 

C-E
1. 讓壁立的巖石,悄悄流著的小河,風過處便竊竊密語的樹林,都作為本身的密切鄰人。
All the company she had were the steep cliffs, the gently flowing stream, and the trees that whispered in the wind. (楊莉藜<英漢互譯教程>河南大學出書社)
 

2. 漢代人在宮殿和墓前的石室里,多喜好繪畫或雕鏤古來的帝王、孔子的門生、列士、列女、逆子之類的圖。
People of the Han Dynasty liked to have paintings or caved relief of rulers of old, disciples of Confucius, eminent scholars and ladies and filial sons in the palaces or the stone chambers before their tombs. (楊莉藜<英漢互譯教程>河南大學出書社)
 

3. 不用說蔥蘢的菜畦,滑膩的石井欄,高峻的皂莢樹,紫紅的桑椹……
I need not speak of the green vegetable plots, the slippery stone coping round the well, the tall honey locust tree, or the purple mulberries. (楊莉藜<英漢互譯教程>河南大學出書社)
 

4. 盡著他的腿的氣力走了一天,問了一天,不動靜。
As long as his legs would move he walked on, asking, but by the end of the day he still had no news. (楊莉藜<英漢互譯教程>河南大學出書社)
 

5. 七股洪流,從水庫的橋孔躍出,恍如七幅閃光黃錦,直鋪下去,碰到嶙峋的亂石,激發一片潔白水珠,脫線通俗,撒在洄漩的水面。
Seven torrents were rushing through the archways of the bridge like seven glittering rolls of cloth of gold cascading on to the jagged rocks below and scattering snow-white bubbles like a string of broken beads on the swirling water. (<中國古代散文卷>外語講授與研討出書社,中國文學出書社)
 

6. 月光如流水通俗,悄悄地瀉在這一片葉子和花上。薄薄的青霧浮起在荷塘里,葉子和花恍如在牛乳中洗過一樣;又像籠著輕紗的夢
Moonlight cascaded like water over the locus leaves and flowers, and a light blue mist floating up from the pool made them seem washed in milk or caught in a gauzy dream. 。(<中國古代散文卷>外語講授與研討出書社,中國文學出書社)
 

7. 另外一方面,必須用上述資料停止普遍宣揚,令人們熟悉到,天然掩護區是掩護天然及文明遺產的根基單元,它們是在人類進步里程中持久奮斗中構成的,對經濟扶植有側重要的感化。
On the other hand, it is necessary to carry on the extensive publicity, enabling the public to know that the protected areas are the basic unit of the management of the natural and cultural heritages which are formed in the struggle process against the nature by human beings and will play an important role in the economic construction. (馮志杰<漢英科技翻譯指要>中國對外翻譯出書公司)
 

8. 為掩護陸地情況,增進陸地經濟成長,必須進步對陸地情況監測的熟悉,增加投入,增強"熱門"海疆的監測,削減陸地的喪失,增強陸地生物監測,防止暗藏的陸地災難產生。
In order to promote the development of sustainable marine economy and conserve marine environment, we should pay great attention to reinforcing awareness of marine environmental monitoring, increasing investment and strengthening the monitoring in "hot spots" as well as biological monitoring to avoid marine calamity. (馮志杰<漢英科技翻譯指要>中國對外翻譯出書公司)
 

9. 飯菜固然簡略,但別有一番風韻,屋外一團黝黑,穿過松林的風收回如火車的轟鳴聲,咱們在搖擺不定的火油燈下激情與白叟干杯。
When we enjoyed the simple but tasty food and drank cheerful toasts with the old man under the flickering oil-lamp, darkness reigned the outside world where the wind was thundering through the pinewood like a train. (<中國古代散文卷>外語講授與研討出書社,中國文學出書社)
 

10. 仍像平常一樣,把晴美的陽光抹上滿峽的樹林,叫帶露的樹葉都亮得耀人的眼睛。
Just as on any other day, the morning sun spread its fine light over the wooded valley, till the dewy leaves and grass glistened with a dazzling brightness. (<中國古代散文卷>外語講授與研討出書社,中國文學出書社)

 

Title: 漢英翻譯技能:音譯(transliteration)
Category: 本科三年級以上
Key words: transliteration, proper name, special noun, C-E translation
Abstract: It discusses the technique of transliteration in translating proper names and some
other special nouns.
Compiler:《中國翻譯》等
 


CE (注:這局部中,完整根據漢語拼音音譯的詞即為"規范漢音",而按廣東話音譯的詞也可作為回譯中EC局部的例子)
1. 胡同:hutong (" Beijing Weekend ", No.520)
 

2. 餃子:jiaozi (《音義兼譯--外來語中譯之首選》,《中國翻譯》,2001/6)
 

3. 技擊:wushu (同上)
 

4. 通俗話:putonghua (同上)
 

5. 旗袍:qipao (同上)
 

6. 上海: Shanghai
(以上6例皆可作為"規范漢音"的例子。)
 

7. 豆腐:tofu (《音義兼譯--外來語中譯之首選》,《中國翻譯》,2001/6 或p.25,《詞語翻譯叢談》,中國對外翻譯出書公司)/dou-fu (p.25,《詞語翻譯叢談》,中國對外翻譯出書公司)
 

8. 工夫: gongfu (《音義兼譯--外來語中譯之首選》,《中國翻譯》,2001/6)
 

9. 乒乓:ping-pong (同上)
 

10.炒面:chow mien (同上)
(以上例8-10也可作為回譯EC局部的例子)


 

Title: 漢英翻譯技能:習語(Translation of Idioms)
Category: 本科三、四年級
Key words: idiom, cases, C-E translation
Abstract: It discusses the technique of translating idioms in various cases.
Compiler: 張培基、呂瑞昌、郭著章等
 

C-E

直譯
(1) 男男女女都人多口雜地說出他們的惦念和盼念。 With seven mouths and eight tongues, all were talking together. They tried to tell how they had missed him. (張培基 習語漢譯英研討)

(2) 亡羊補牢 to mend the fold after a sheep is lost (同上)

直譯加注
司馬昭之心,已經是路人皆知。 This Sima Zhao trick is obvious to every man in the street.
(3) (Sima zhao was a prime minister of Wei(220-265)who nursed a secret ambition to usurp the throne. The emperor once remarked: "Sima Zhao's intention is obvious to every man in the street." (呂瑞昌等 漢英翻譯教程)

(4) 你說這話,意思是方式導上三請諸葛?
What you say implies that the leadership should ask you three times, like Zhuge Liang, doesn't it?
(Zhuge Liang, a statesman and strategist in the State of Shu during the period of wisdom and resourcefulness in Chinese folklore. )
(張培基 習語漢譯英研討)
同義習語套用
 

(5) 好天轟隆   a bolt from the blue (同上)
 

(6) 只要背城借一地跟他們拼,還許有翻身的一天。
All you can do is to burn your boats and fight them in the hope that one day you'll come out on top.  (同上)

意譯
(7) 我要有個安然無恙,你給玉山捎個話!
If anything should happen to me , let Yushan know! (呂瑞昌等 漢英翻譯教程)
 

(8) 深藏若虛 A truly wise person does not show off his (her) ability. ( 張培基 習語漢譯英研討)


直譯加意譯
(9) 瞎子點燈白搭蠟 as useless as a blind man lighting a candle (張培基 習語漢譯英研討)

(10) 梅她一個獨身人,無親無端。
Mei was all by herself and far from home, without a single relative or friend to help her.
(呂瑞昌等 漢英翻譯教程)
姑且變體
 

(11) 換湯不換藥 (張培基 習語漢譯英研討)
old wine in new bottles ( 原有習語為 new wine in old bottles)
 

(12) 刻舟求劍 (同上)
to wait for gains without pains ( 原有習語為 No pains, no gains )

省略
(13) 這男子真有閉月羞花之容,閉月羞花之貌。 (張培基 習語漢譯英研討)
The girl's beauty would put the flowers to shame.
 

(14) 冷漠的陽看護著他們的愁眉鎖眼和長發白眼。 (呂瑞昌等 漢譯英教程)
The cold, pale sunlight fell on their gloomy faces, long hair and lusterless eyes.

增加
(15) 螳螂捕蟬,黃雀在后 (張培基 習語漢譯英研討)
The mantis stalks the cicada, unaware of the oriole lurking behind itself.
 

(16) 樹倒猢猻散 (同上)
Once the tree falls, the monkeys on it will flee helter-skelter.

混喻的躲避
(17) 讓咱們披荊斬棘,奮勇進步。 (同上)
Let us march forward valiantly, braving all difficulties and hardships!
(若是直譯成Let us march forward valiantly, braving winds and waves 之類的句子,此中就呈現了march和 waves 的混喻題目。處置的方式是1,"披荊斬棘"和"奮勇進步"在意思上本是彼此反復,加以"披荊斬棘"這個習語因為利用過量現實上以不存在甚么抽象性,英譯時可略成Let us march forward valiantly! 2, 意譯法處置習語"披荊斬棘",成Let us march forward valiantly, braving all difficulties and hardships!)

粗鄙諺的躲避
借用同義習語或意譯等方式躲避。
(18) 她不對勁人家說她是三槍打不出一個悶屁的掉隊的人。(同上)
It annoyed her that people should say that she was backward and that no amount of coaxing would open her mouth to speak.
絕對應的英語粗鄙諺來取代原文中的漢語粗鄙諺。
 

(19) 忘八!再打一個德律風去!叫他馬下去見我!(同上)
"You blasted idiots! Go and ring him up again and tell him to come round at once!"

   

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